Bootstrapping the Compiler

This subchapter is about the bootstrapping process.

When running you will see output such as:

Building stage0 std artifacts
Copying stage0 std from stage0
Building stage0 compiler artifacts
Copying stage0 rustc from stage0
Building LLVM for x86_64-apple-darwin
Building stage0 codegen artifacts
Assembling stage1 compiler
Building stage1 std artifacts
Copying stage1 std from stage1
Building stage1 compiler artifacts
Copying stage1 rustc from stage1
Building stage1 codegen artifacts
Assembling stage2 compiler
Uplifting stage1 std
Copying stage2 std from stage1
Generating unstable book md files
Building stage0 tool unstable-book-gen
Building stage0 tool rustbook
Documenting standalone
Building rustdoc for stage2
Documenting book redirect pages
Documenting stage2 std
Building rustdoc for stage1
Documenting stage2 whitelisted compiler
Documenting stage2 compiler
Documenting stage2 rustdoc
Documenting error index
Uplifting stage1 rustc
Copying stage2 rustc from stage1
Building stage2 tool error_index_generator

A deeper look into's phases can be seen here:

A diagram of the rustc compilation phases

Keep in mind this diagram is a simplification, i.e. rustdoc can be built at different stages, the process is a bit different when passing flags such as --keep-stage, or if there are non-host targets.

The following tables indicate the outputs of various stage actions:

Stage 0 ActionOutput
beta extractedbuild/HOST/stage0
stage0 builds bootstrapbuild/bootstrap
stage0 builds libstdbuild/HOST/stage0-std/TARGET
copy stage0-std (HOST only)build/HOST/stage0-sysroot/lib/rustlib/HOST
stage0 builds rustc with stage0-sysrootbuild/HOST/stage0-rustc/HOST
copy stage0-rustc (except executable)build/HOST/stage0-sysroot/lib/rustlib/HOST
build llvmbuild/HOST/llvm
stage0 builds codegen with stage0-sysrootbuild/HOST/stage0-codegen/HOST
stage0 builds rustdoc with stage0-sysrootbuild/HOST/stage0-tools/HOST

--stage=0 stops here.

Stage 1 ActionOutput
copy (uplift) stage0-rustc executable to stage1build/HOST/stage1/bin
copy (uplift) stage0-codegen to stage1build/HOST/stage1/lib
copy (uplift) stage0-sysroot to stage1build/HOST/stage1/lib
stage1 builds libstdbuild/HOST/stage1-std/TARGET
copy stage1-std (HOST only)build/HOST/stage1/lib/rustlib/HOST
stage1 builds rustcbuild/HOST/stage1-rustc/HOST
copy stage1-rustc (except executable)build/HOST/stage1/lib/rustlib/HOST
stage1 builds codegenbuild/HOST/stage1-codegen/HOST

--stage=1 stops here.

Stage 2 ActionOutput
copy (uplift) stage1-rustc executablebuild/HOST/stage2/bin
copy (uplift) stage1-sysrootbuild/HOST/stage2/lib and build/HOST/stage2/lib/rustlib/HOST
stage2 builds libstd (except HOST?)build/HOST/stage2-std/TARGET
copy stage2-std (not HOST targets)build/HOST/stage2/lib/rustlib/TARGET
stage2 builds rustdocbuild/HOST/stage2-tools/HOST
copy rustdocbuild/HOST/stage2/bin

--stage=2 stops here.

Note that the convention uses is that:

  • A "stage N artifact" is an artifact that is produced by the stage N compiler.
  • The "stage (N+1) compiler" is assembled from "stage N artifacts".
  • A --stage N flag means build with stage N.

In short, stage 0 uses the stage0 compiler to create stage0 artifacts which will later be uplifted to stage1.

Every time any of the main artifacts (std and rustc) are compiled, two steps are performed. When std is compiled by a stage N compiler, that std will be linked to programs built by the stage N compiler (including rustc built later on). It will also be used by the stage (N+1) compiler to link against itself. This is somewhat intuitive if one thinks of the stage (N+1) compiler as "just" another program we are building with the stage N compiler. In some ways, rustc (the binary, not the rustbuild step) could be thought of as one of the few no_core binaries out there.

So "stage0 std artifacts" are in fact the output of the downloaded stage0 compiler, and are going to be used for anything built by the stage0 compiler: e.g. rustc artifacts. When it announces that it is "building stage1 std artifacts" it has moved on to the next bootstrapping phase. This pattern continues in latter stages.

Also note that building host std and target std are different based on the stage (e.g. see in the table how stage2 only builds non-host std targets. This is because during stage2, the host std is uplifted from the "stage 1" std -- specifically, when "Building stage 1 artifacts" is announced, it is later copied into stage2 as well (both the compiler's libdir and the sysroot).

This std is pretty much necessary for any useful work with the compiler. Specifically, it's used as the std for programs compiled by the newly compiled compiler (so when you compile fn main() { } it is linked to the last std compiled with build --stage 1 src/libstd).

The rustc generated by the stage0 compiler is linked to the freshly-built libstd, which means that for the most part only std needs to be cfg-gated, so that rustc can use featured added to std immediately after their addition, without need for them to get into the downloaded beta. The libstd built by the stage1/bin/rustc compiler, also known as "stage1 std artifacts", is not necessarily ABI-compatible with that compiler. That is, the rustc binary most likely could not use this std itself. It is however ABI-compatible with any programs that the stage1/bin/rustc binary builds (including itself), so in that sense they're paired.

This is also where --keep-stage 1 src/libstd comes into play. Since most changes to the compiler don't actually change the ABI, once you've produced a libstd in stage 1, you can probably just reuse it with a different compiler. If the ABI hasn't changed, you're good to go, no need to spend the time recompiling that std. --keep-stage simply assumes the previous compile is fine and copies those artifacts into the appropriate place, skipping the cargo invocation.

The reason we first build std, then rustc, is largely just because we want to minimize cfg(stage0) in the code for rustc. Currently rustc is always linked against a "new" std so it doesn't ever need to be concerned with differences in std; it can assume that the std is as fresh as possible.

The reason we need to build it twice is because of ABI compatibility. The beta compiler has it's own ABI, and then the stage1/bin/rustc compiler will produce programs/libraries with the new ABI. We used to build three times, but because we assume that the ABI is constant within a codebase, we presume that the libraries produced by the "stage2" compiler (produced by the stage1/bin/rustc compiler) is ABI-compatible with the stage1/bin/rustc compiler's produced libraries. What this means is that we can skip that final compilation -- and simply use the same libraries as the stage2/bin/rustc compiler uses itself for programs it links against.

This stage2/bin/rustc compiler is shipped to end-users, along with the stage 1 {std,rustc} artifacts.

Environment Variables

During bootstrapping, there are a bunch of compiler-internal environment variables that are used. If you are trying to run an intermediate version of rustc, sometimes you may need to set some of these environment variables manually. Otherwise, you get an error like the following:

thread 'main' panicked at 'RUSTC_STAGE was not set: NotPresent', src/libcore/

If ./stageN/bin/rustc gives an error about environment variables, that usually means something is quite wrong -- or you're trying to compile e.g. librustc or libstd or something that depends on environment variables. In the unlikely case that you actually need to invoke rustc in such a situation, you can find the environment variable values by adding the following flag to your command: --on-fail=print-env.