As you probably know, Rust has a very expressive type system that has extensive support for generic types. But of course, assembly is not generic, so we need to figure out the concrete types of all the generics before the code can execute.

Different languages handle this problem differently. For example, in some languages, such as Java, we may not know the most precise type of value until runtime. In the case of Java, this is ok because (almost) all variables are reference values anyway (i.e. pointers to a heap allocated object). This flexibility comes at the cost of performance, since all accesses to an object must dereference a pointer.

Rust takes a different approach: it monomorphizes all generic types. This means that compiler stamps out a different copy of the code of a generic function for each concrete type needed. For example, if I use a Vec<u64> and a Vec<String> in my code, then the generated binary will have two copies of the generated code for Vec: one for Vec<u64> and another for Vec<String>. The result is fast programs, but it comes at the cost of compile time (creating all those copies can take a while) and binary size (all those copies might take a lot of space).

Monomorphization is the first step in the backend of the Rust compiler.


First, we need to figure out what concrete types we need for all the generic things in our program. This is called collection, and the code that does this is called the monomorphization collector.

Take this example:

fn banana() {

fn main() {

The monomorphization collector will give you a list of [main, banana, peach::<u64>]. These are the functions that will have machine code generated for them. Collector will also add things like statics to that list.

See the collector rustdocs for more info.

The monomorphization collector is run just before MIR lowering and codegen. rustc_codegen_ssa::base::codegen_crate calls the collect_and_partition_mono_items query, which does monomorphization collection and then partitions them into codegen units.

Codegen Unit (CGU) partitioning

For better incremental build times, the CGU partitioner creates two CGU for each source level modules. One is for "stable" i.e. non-generic code and the other is more volatile code i.e. monomorphized/specialized instances.

For dependencies, consider Crate A and Crate B, such that Crate B depends on Crate A. The following table lists different scenarios for a function in Crate A that might be used by one or more modules in Crate B.

Crate A functionBehavior
Non-generic functionCrate A function doesn't appear in any codegen units of Crate B
Non-generic #[inline] functionCrate A function appears within a single CGU of Crate B, and exists even after post-inlining stage
Generic functionRegardless of inlining, all monomorphized (specialized) functions
from Crate A appear within a single codegen unit for Crate B.
The codegen unit exists even after the post inlining stage.
Generic #[inline] function- same -

For more details about the partitioner read the module level documentation.


As mentioned above, monomorphization produces fast code, but it comes at the cost of compile time and binary size. MIR optimizations can help a bit with this.

In addition to MIR optimizations, rustc attempts to determine when fewer copies of functions are necessary and avoid making those copies - known as "polymorphization". When a function-like item is found during monomorphization collection, the rustc_mir_monomorphize::polymorphize::unused_generic_params query is invoked, which traverses the MIR of the item to determine on which generic parameters the item might not need duplicated.

Currently, polymorphization only looks for unused generic parameters. These are relatively rare in functions, but closures inherit the generic parameters of their parent function and it is common for closures to not use those inherited parameters. Without polymorphization, a copy of these closures would be created for each copy of the parent function. By creating fewer copies, less LLVM IR is generated; therefore less needs to be processed.

unused_generic_params returns a FiniteBitSet<u64> where a bit is set if the generic parameter of the corresponding index is unused. Any parameters after the first sixty-four are considered used.

The results of polymorphization analysis are used in the Instance::polymorphize function to replace the Instance's substitutions for the unused generic parameters with their identity substitutions.

Consider the example below:

fn foo<A, B>() {
    let x: Option<B> = None;

fn main() {
    foo::<u16, u32>();
    foo::<u64, u32>();

During monomorphization collection, foo will be collected with the substitutions [u16, u32] and [u64, u32] (from its invocations in main). foo has the identity substitutions [A, B] (or [ty::Param(0), ty::Param(1)]).

Polymorphization will identify A as being unused and it will be replaced in the substitutions with the identity parameter before being added to the set of collected items - thereby reducing the copies from two ([u16, u32] and [u64, u32]) to one ([A, u32]).

unused_generic_params will also be invoked during code generation when the symbol name for foo is being computed for use in the callsites of foo (which have the regular substitutions present, otherwise there would be a symbol mismatch between the caller and the function).

As a result of polymorphization, items collected during monomorphization cannot be assumed to be monomorphic.

It is intended that polymorphization be extended to more advanced cases, such as where only the size/alignment of a generic parameter are required.

More details on polymorphization are available in the master's thesis associated with polymorphization's initial implementation.