Libraries and Metadata

When the compiler sees a reference to an external crate, it needs to load some information about that crate. This chapter gives an overview of that process, and the supported file formats for crate libraries.

Libraries

A crate dependency can be loaded from an rlib, dylib, or rmeta file. A key point of these file formats is that they contain rustc-specific metadata. This metadata allows the compiler to discover enough information about the external crate to understand the items it contains, which macros it exports, and much more.

rlib

An rlib is an archive file, which is similar to a tar file. This file format is specific to rustc, and may change over time. This file contains:

  • Object code, which is the result of code generation. This is used during regular linking. There is a separate .o file for each codegen unit. The codegen step can be skipped with the -C linker-plugin-lto CLI option, which means each .o file will only contain LLVM bitcode.
  • LLVM bitcode, which is a binary representation of LLVM's intermediate representation, which is embedded as a section in the .o files. This can be used for Link Time Optimization (LTO). This can be removed with the -C embed-bitcode=no CLI option to improve compile times and reduce disk space if LTO is not needed.
  • rustc metadata, in a file named lib.rmeta.
  • A symbol table, which is generally a list of symbols with offsets to the object file that contain that symbol. This is pretty standard for archive files.

dylib

A dylib is a platform-specific shared library. It includes the rustc metadata in a special link section called .rustc in a compressed format.

rmeta

An rmeta file is custom binary format that contains the metadata for the crate. This file can be used for fast "checks" of a project by skipping all code generation (as is done with cargo check), collecting enough information for documentation (as is done with cargo doc), or for pipelining. This file is created if the --emit=metadata CLI option is used.

rmeta files do not support linking, since they do not contain compiled object files.

Metadata

The metadata contains a wide swath of different elements. This guide will not go into detail of every field it contains. You are encouraged to browse the CrateRoot definition to get a sense of the different elements it contains. Everything about metadata encoding and decoding is in the rustc_metadata package.

Here are a few highlights of things it contains:

  • The version of the rustc compiler. The compiler will refuse to load files from any other version.
  • The Strict Version Hash (SVH). This helps ensure the correct dependency is loaded.
  • The Crate Disambiguator. This is a hash used to disambiguate between different crates of the same name.
  • Information about all the source files in the library. This can be used for a variety of things, such as diagnostics pointing to sources in a dependency.
  • Information about exported macros, traits, types, and items. Generally, anything that's needed to be known when a path references something inside a crate dependency.
  • Encoded MIR. This is optional, and only encoded if needed for code generation. cargo check skips this for performance reasons.

Strict Version Hash

The Strict Version Hash (SVH, also known as the "crate hash") is a 64-bit hash that is used to ensure that the correct crate dependencies are loaded. It is possible for a directory to contain multiple copies of the same dependency built with different settings, or built from different sources. The crate loader will skip any crates that have the wrong SVH.

The SVH is also used for the incremental compilation session filename, though that usage is mostly historic.

The hash includes a variety of elements:

  • Hashes of the HIR nodes.
  • All of the upstream crate hashes.
  • All of the source filenames.
  • Hashes of certain command-line flags (like -C metadata via the Crate Disambiguator, and all CLI options marked with [TRACKED]).

See finalize_and_compute_crate_hash for where the hash is actually computed.

Crate Disambiguator

The CrateDisambiguator is a 128-bit hash used to distinguish between different crates of the same name. It is a hash of all the -C metadata CLI options computed in compute_crate_disambiguator. It is used in a variety of places, such as symbol name mangling, crate loading, and much more.

By default, all Rust symbols are mangled and incorporate the disambiguator hash. This allows multiple versions of the same crate to be included together. Cargo automatically generates -C metadata hashes based on a variety of factors, like the package version, source, and the target kind (a lib and bin can have the same crate name, so they need to be disambiguated).

Crate loading

Crate loading can have quite a few subtle complexities. During name resolution, when an external crate is referenced (via an extern crate or path), the resolver uses the CrateLoader which is responsible for finding the crate libraries and loading the metadata for them. After the dependency is loaded, the CrateLoader will provide the information the resolver needs to perform its job (such as expanding macros, resolving paths, etc.).

To load each external crate, the CrateLoader uses a CrateLocator to actually find the correct files for one specific crate. There is some great documentation in the locator module that goes into detail on how loading works, and I strongly suggest reading it to get the full picture.

The location of a dependency can come from several different places. Direct dependencies are usually passed with --extern flags, and the loader can look at those directly. Direct dependencies often have references to their own dependencies, which need to be loaded, too. These are usually found by scanning the directories passed with the -L flag for any file whose metadata contains a matching crate name and SVH. The loader will also look at the sysroot to find dependencies.

As crates are loaded, they are kept in the CStore with the crate metadata wrapped in the CrateMetadata struct. After resolution and expansion, the CStore will make its way into the GlobalCtxt for the rest of compilation.

Pipelining

One trick to improve compile times is to start building a crate as soon as the metadata for its dependencies is available. For a library, there is no need to wait for the code generation of dependencies to finish. Cargo implements this technique by telling rustc to emit an rmeta file for each dependency as well as an rlib. As early as it can, rustc will save the rmeta file to disk before it continues to the code generation phase. The compiler sends a JSON message to let the build tool know that it can start building the next crate if possible.

The crate loading system is smart enough to know when it sees an rmeta file to use that if the rlib is not there (or has only been partially written).

This pipelining isn't possible for binaries, because the linking phase will require the code generation of all its dependencies. In the future, it may be possible to further improve this scenario by splitting linking into a separate command (see #64191).